Coccyzus americanus occidentalis

Taxonomy 
Scientific Name:Coccyzus americanus occidentalis
Common name:Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo
Rank and Status   
Global Rank:G5T2T3 Native Status:Native
Subnational (State) Rank:S1B Endemic:No
US ESA Status:Listed threatened Sand Dunes:No
NNHP Tracking Status:Do not track Wetland:Yes
Other Agency Status Status Last Updated Status Comments
Bureau of Land Management - Nevada Sensitive BLM 2011 list
US Forest Service - Region 4 (Intermountain) Threatened USFS list, Jan 2015 update
US Forest Service - Region 5 (California) Sensitive USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region [R5], Sensitive Animal Species by Forest, updated 09/09/2013
US Forest Service - Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit Sensitive USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region [R5], Sensitive Animal Species by Forest, updated 09/09/2013
State of Nevada Protected Sensitive Birds NAC 503.050.3
Nevada Wildlife Action Plan - 2012 Species of Conservation Priority
Nevada Wildlife Action Plan - 2005 Species of Conservation Priority
Nevada Partners in Flight Priority Bird Species
CCVI Score Moderately Vulnerable Conf. Low; Factors contributing to increased vulnerability are climate change mitigation, historical and physiological thermal niche, historical and physiological hydrological niche, other spp. for habitat, and diet.
Distribution (NV Counties)

Status: Predicted or probable

Churchill Eureka Humboldt Washoe
Elko

Status: Confident or certain

Clark Lincoln Lyon Nye
Summary Occurrence Data
Occurrence Count: Not Available
Last Observed: Not Available
Total Observed Area (hectares): Not Available
Maximum Known Elevation (m): Not Available
Minimum Known Elevation (m): Not Available
Links
Coccyzus americanus occidentalis data at NatureServe
Coccyzus americanus occidentalis photos and data at Encyclopedia of Life
Character Abstract
Identification Comments:
Subspecies Comments:There has been a drastic reduction in breeding range within the past 70 years due to riparian alteration or destruction. Habitat loss of both migratory and breeding habitat is thought to be the primary reason for the decline of the species. Alteration of water flows has had a negative impact on riparian systems. Large contiguous blocks of cottonwood-willow riparian forest are more valuable than smaller, fragmented patches of habitat.<br>
Food Habits:Primarily eats large insects. Consumes many smooth, hairy, or spiny caterpillars, especially tent caterpillars which are available in abundance when present. Eats a variety of moths and crickets, and occasionally beetles, flies, spiders, frogs, and small lizards. Most frequently forages by gleaning insects from leaves and stems, usually while perched, but occasionally while hovering.
Phenology Comments:
Reproduction Comments:Vary large, heavy eggs facilitate rapid development of embryos and nestlings. Incubation 10-11 days. Eggs may be laid at irregular intervals during prolonged breeding season.
Migration Mobility:Winters primarily in South America, east of the Andes. Relatively late spring migrant, arriving on breedign grounds starting mid- to late May, 4-8 weeks later than eastern cuckoos occurring at the same latitude. Considerable numbers not present until early to mid-Jun, and transients continue to be recorded late June to mid July. In fall, western cuckoos depart 2-3 week earlier than eastern cuckoos. Departures begin in late Aug with most birds gone by mid Sep. Stragglers occur from late Sep to Nov, but very rarely after early Oct. Migrates sometimes in small, silent groups, but also observed in large numbers during migration in Central and South America. Migrates predominately at night.
Habitat Comments:Riparian obligate species which requires dense cottonwood-willow forested tracts. In some areas, birds required 17+ ha (42 acres), including a minimum of 3+ ha (7.5) of closed-canopy, broad-leaved forest. Nests are placed in willows, but cottonwoods are used extensively for foraging.
Ecology comments:Territorial status unclear; needs more study. May establish breeding territory that covers many acres in some areas. However, in other areas no evidence of breeding or foraging territories found. Solitary during breeding season; observed alone or in breeding pairs. Associates in larger numbers during migration. Major predators include falcons (adults), jays, grackles, snakes, and some small mammals (eggs and nestlings).
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