Lithobates onca

Taxonomy 
Scientific Name:Lithobates onca
Common name:relict leopard frog
Rank and Status   
Global Rank:G1G2 Native Status:Native
Subnational (State) Rank:S1 Endemic:No
US ESA Status:Candidate Sand Dunes:No
NNHP Tracking Status:At-Risk List Wetland:Yes
Other Agency Status Status Last Updated Status Comments
Bureau of Land Management - Nevada Sensitive BLM Nevada Sensitive Species List dated 2017-10-01
State of Nevada Protected Protected Amphibians NAC 503.075.2
Nevada Wildlife Action Plan - 2012 Species of Conservation Priority
Nevada Wildlife Action Plan - 2005 Species of Conservation Priority
CCVI Score Moderately Vulnerable Conf. VH; Factors contributing to increased vulnerability are natural barriers, dispersal/movement, historical hydrological niche, and genetic variation.
Distribution (NV Counties)

Status: Confident or certain

Clark
Summary Occurrence Data
Occurrence Count:16
Total Observed Area (hectares):Not Available
Maximum Known Elevation (m):488
Minimum Known Elevation (m):206
Links
Lithobates onca data at NatureServe
Lithobates onca photos and data at Encyclopedia of Life
Character Abstract
Identification Comments:Relict leopard frogs have folds with short posterior segment that is broken and inset medially. Posterior thigh patterns are highly variable but generally consist of reticulations ranging from weak to fuzzy to rather bold. Relict leopard frogs tend to have fewer spots on the dorsum or the nose and above and between the eyes or other leopard taxa. Most relict leopard frogs tend to have tibiofibulae that are longer than half the snout-urostyle-length.
Subspecies Comments:
Food Habits:Adults probably are mainly invertivorous. Larvae probably eat algae, organic debris, plant tissue, and minute organisms in water.Individuals reach sexual maturity in 1-2 years. Larval leopard frogs are primarily hebivorous. In captivity tadpoles consume algae , dark leafy greens, duckweed, spirulina-type fish food and commercial "protein gel food".
Phenology Comments:
Reproduction Comments:Breeding has been documented in September, November and late January through March.  Water temperature which differs significantly among springs does not appear to influence breeding season.  Male relict leopard frogs reach reproductive maturity at 42 mm.  Eggs laid by a captive population hatched after 5 days, captive metamorphose approx. 6.5 months after hatching.
Migration Mobility:Relict leopard frogs are active all year, most often observed in shallow water along channel or pool margins. Relict leopard frogs limit movements along the course of springs.  In a three year mark-recapture study in isolated 550 m long reach at Blue Point Spring, mean distance moved between captures averaged 18 m, the longest distance recorded between captures was 120 meters.
Habitat Comments:Relict leopard frogs occupy spring, spring outflow, and associated marsh and wetland habitats generally in close proximity to river systems. They are active year-round, and are most often observed in shallow water along channel or pool margins. Breeding has been documented in September, November, and late January through March.
Ecology comments:
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