Relictus solitarius

Taxonomy 
Scientific Name:Relictus solitarius
Common name:relict dace
Rank and Status   
Global Rank:G2G3 Native Status:Native
Subnational (State) Rank:S2S3 Endemic:Yes
US ESA Status:None Sand Dunes:No
NNHP Tracking Status:At-Risk List Wetland:Yes
Other Agency Status Status Last Updated Status Comments
Bureau of Land Management - Nevada Sensitive BLM Nevada Sensitive Species List dated 2017-10-01
State of Nevada Protected Sensitive Fish NAC 503.067
Nevada Wildlife Action Plan - 2012 Species of Conservation Priority
International Union for Conservation of Nature Endangered
CCVI Score Moderately Vulnerable Conf. Mod - factors increasing vulnerability include natural barriers and historical and physiological hydrological niche
Distribution (NV Counties)

Status: Confident or certain

Elko White Pine
Summary Occurrence Data
Occurrence Count:44
Total Observed Area (hectares):57
Maximum Known Elevation (m):1914
Minimum Known Elevation (m):1701
Links
Relictus solitarius data at NatureServe
Relictus solitarius photos and data at Encyclopedia of Life
Character Abstract
Identification Comments:
Subspecies Comments:
Food Habits:
Phenology Comments:
Reproduction Comments:The spawning habits and habitats of relict dace are virtually unknown. Viggs (1982) hypothesized that spawning was likely seasonal in non-thermal habitats and year-long in thermal springs. Hubbs et al. (1974) suggested the breeding season was at least from late June to mid-September. Observations suggest that young are present year-round, which supports the hypothesis that relic dace has an extended spawning period. Both sexes likely spawn as yearlings with the smallest spawning in their second year.
Migration Mobility:
Habitat Comments:Relict dace are a unique genus of endemic cyprinid minnow occurring only in several isolated basin valleys in east-central Nevada. Occupied habitats are springs, spring-fed streams, ponds, intermittent lakes and marshes, with mud or stone bottoms. Typically concentrates in well-vegetated pools where banks are undercut. Relict dace are midwater swimmers taking cover in soft bottom or vegetation (Sigler and Sigler 1987).
Ecology comments:Knowledge on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the species is limited. Like other cyprinids, relict dace appear to be opportunistic omnivores. Common food items include amphipods, gastropods, insects, ostrocods, and leeches. Size varies tremendously among different populations. Environmental conditions may affect growth and size of fish in localized populations but adults are typically 60mm to 100mm SL. The relict dace is an extremely prolific fish that has a long breeding season, extending from late-June to late-September. Reproductive strategies likely vary with respect to environment, especially thermal regime. Both sexes likely spawn as yearlings with the smallest yearlings spawning in their second year of life. In addition, many females reproduce when 2+ years old while few males breed at ages older than 1 or 2. Fecundity as well as spawning behavior of the species remains unknown. It is speculated that the fish are vegetative broadcast spawners since soft mud substrates typical to relict dace habitats are often anaerobic. The relict dace is a highly secretive species. When held in laboratory tanks, the species spend most of its time hiding. In a natural environment, it is a mid-water swimmer that is seldom observed at the surface or resting on the bottom. This may be in response to potential predators such as birds. When alarmed, however, the relict dace is known to dive into the soft mud substrate or submerged vegetation of its habitat. Vegetation is a key component of the relict dace's habitat. Heavy growth of <i>Chara</i>, <i>Nasturtium</i>, <i>Potamogeton</i>, <i>Utricularia</i>, filamentous algae, rush (bull and spike), moss, and <i>Carex</i> are characteristic of relict dace habitats (Crookshanks 2006; Hubbs and Miller 1975; Sigler and Sigler 1987).
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